There were some immediate impacts to the animals of the Gulf of Mexico that could be seen with the naked eye: pelicans black with oil, fish belly-up in brown sludge, smothered turtles washed up on beaches. But not much time has passed since the spill, and it will take many more years of monitoring and research to understand what happened.
Strandings of both dolphins and sea turtles increased significantly in the years following the spill. "From 2002 to 2009, the Gulf averaged 63 dolphin deaths a year. That rose to 125 in the seven months after the spill in 2010 and 335 in all of 2011, averaging more than 200 a year since April 2010," reported Reuters in 2015. Since then, dolphin deaths have declined, and long-term impacts on the population are not yet known. Kemp's ridley sea turtle nests have gone down in the years since the spill, and long-term effects are not yet known.
Seabirds were initially harmed by crude surface oil—even a small bit of oil on their feathers impeded their ability to fly, swim and find food by diving. Seabird losses may have numbered in the hundreds of thousands, but reliable estimates are hard to come by. Looking beyond the sea, researchers are currently studying how oil may have affected land birds that live in the marshes along the Gulf coast.
Invertebrates in the Gulf were hard hit by the Deepwater Horizon spill—both in coastal areas and in the deep. Shrimp fisheries were closed for much of the year following the spill, but these commercially-important species now seem to have recovered. Deep-water corals grow very slowly and can live for many centuries. Found as deep as 4,000 feet below the surface, corals near the blowout showed signs of tissue damage and were covered by an unknown brown substance, later identified as oil from the spill. Laboratory studies conducted with coral species showed that coral larva exposed to oil and dispersant had lower survival rates and difficulty settling on a hard surface to grow.
The impact of the spill on fish communities is still largely unknown. Lab studies have shown that oil can cause heart defects in the developing larvae of bluefin tuna and other fish, but we won't know if this occurred in the wild until after those larvae would have grown up. Some fish larvae populations actually grew after the spill, as they had more food in the form of oil-eating microbes.
There were some reports of deformed wildlife after the spill. For years following the spill there were reports of fish with lesions and deformities, and some reports of eyeless and deformed shrimp after the spill. However, consuming Gulf seafood is now completely safe.
Over 1,000 miles of shoreline on the Gulf of Mexico, from Texas to Florida, was impacted by oil from the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Much of this area has been cleaned, but eroded shorelines are taking longer to recover and erosion rates have accelerated in these areas.
You can explore more ecosystem effects in our interactive.
The more recent you are, the more impressed the examiner will be! here is a thread where we can search and share case studies!
please add any information on any topics you feel will benefit your studies!
Tectonics 15th may 2013
An earthquake 2.8 mw2 was recorded in Wester Ross, Scotland. the epicenter being located near Gairlock.
cause - could be the reactivation of an old fault line. (does not specifically relate to tectonic movement)
"Local resident Roy MacIntyre told BBC Radio Scotland that he had felt the walls of his house shudder as if a large bus had passed by outside."
"Also on Wednesday, a 1.4 mag quake was felt south of Cannich in Strathglass at 07:43. A 1.3 mag earthquake was felt near Torridon in Wester Ross on 9 May."
no recorded threat to the society, economy or the environment.
For local conflicts
HS2 rail benefits to economy 'unclear', says National Audit Office
The economic benefits of the HS2 high-speed rail project are unclear, the National Audit Office (NAO) has warned.
In a report, the NAO said it had "reservations" about how the planned high-speed rail link would deliver growth and jobs.
It added that the project had an estimated £3.3bn funding gap.
Labour described the report as "worrying", but Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin rejected the report, saying the case for HS2 was "clear".
The NAO said the Department of Transport (DfT) had "poorly articulated" its case that the rail network needed transformation and that the High Speed 2 project would generate regional economic growth.
It said the department had emphasised that HS2 would provide faster and more reliable journeys, but said the link between this and the strategic reasons for doing the project in first place, such as rebalancing regional economies, was not clear.
The NAO also estimates a £3.3bn funding gap for the controversial project which "the government has yet to decide how to fill".
Rest here: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-22543860
For Tectonics. The examiners like recent earthquakes
Strong earthquake strikes Papua New Guinea-from 17th April 2013
A strong earthquake has struck Papua New Guinea's northern coast, causing residents who feared a tsunami to seek higher ground.
The quake, which the US Geological Survey says had a 6.8 magnitude, reportedly lasted for three minutes.
No tsunami warning has been issued and there were also no reports of serious damage or injuries.
It struck at about 08:55 local time (22:55 GMT Tuesday), with an epicentre 19km (11 miles) east of Aitape town.
The coastal town of Aitape was devastated in 1998 when a huge earthquake triggered a tsunami that left more than 2,000 people dead.
No tsunami warning was issued, but the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said a quake this strong could sometimes generate local tsunami waves within 100km of the epicentre.
"Authorities in the region should be aware of this possibility and take appropriate action," it said.
An eyewitness told ABC News that many people sought higher ground after the earthquake struck.
"They were frightened maybe the sea will come up," Max Kamave said.