The Chicago Manual of Style is often used to document sources for research papers. The purpose of documentation is to:
- Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper.
- Indicate the authors or sources of these in a Bibliography at the end of your paper.
Proper citation acknowledges the creators of each source and helps your readers find the original source if they would like more information.
The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) recognizes two basic basic documentation systems: (1) Notes and Bibliography (used for papers in the humanities, e.g. literature, history, political science, and the arts) and (2) Author-Date (used for papers in the physical, natural, and social sciences). . This guide is intended as a guideline for the Notes and Bibliography system only.
Be sure to check with your instructor to find out which citation style you should use for an assignment.
See these sections for information and examples that will help you to cite the sources that you come across during your research.
Images and Works of Art
The examples in this guide cover frequently used citation forms only. While this guide provides helpful examples, it may not be perfect. For more detailed information refer to The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.), available at Kitsap Regional Library, see the PDF handout and website links in the Learn More box below, or ask for help!
This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.
Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-01-31 01:20:29
Periodicals include printed journals, electronic journals, magazines, and newspapers. Citations for these sources should include enough information for the reader to find the resource in a library or a database. Thus, publication dates are essential: magazines and newspapers are typically serialized by day, month, and year; journals include volume, year, month or season and issue number.
One of the major differences between notes and bibliographic entries in periodicals concerns the way in which major elements are separated. In notes, the major elements are separated by commas. In the bibliography, these elements are separated by periods.
Notes and bibliographic entries for a journal include the following: full name of author(s), article title, journal title and issue information. Issue information refers to volume, issue number, month, year, and page numbers. For online works, retrieval information and the date of access are also included.
Notes include the author’s name as listed in the article. Bibliographic entries, however, invert the author’s name.
Both notes and bibliographies use quotation marks to set off the titles of articles within the journal.
Journal titles may omit an initial “The” but should otherwise be given in full, capitalized (headline-style), and italicized.
The volume number follows the journal title with no punctuation and is not italicized. The issue number (if it is given) is separated from the volume number with a comma and is preceded by “no.” The year appears in parenthesis after the volume number (or issue number if given). The year may be preceded by a specific date, month, or season if given. Page information follows the year. For notes, page number(s) refer only to the cited material; the bibliography includes the first and last pages of the article.
1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.
MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.
Citing electronic journals generally follows the same format for printed periodicals, which is explained in the Journals section. Additionally, entries include the DOI or URL (DOIs are preferred). The date accessed is not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. If an access date is required for other reasons (e.g. by discipline, publisher, or instructor), the access date should be included immediately prior to the DOI or URL. If included, access dates should be separated by commas in notes or periods in bibliographical entries.
Even if weekly or monthly magazines are numbered by volume or issue, they are cited by date only. When following the CMOS Note and Bibliography style, the year is presented as shown in the examples below. When following the CMOS Author Date style, the date is essential to the citation and it is not enclosed in parentheses.
Citations for journal articles may include a specific page number. Inclusive page numbers for the entire article are often omitted in bibliographical entries, however, because the pages of the article are often separated by many pages of unrelated material. If page numbers are included, they should follow the date and be preceded by a colon.
1. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 4, 2017, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.
Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 4, 2017. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.
Notes and bibliographic entries for magazines include the following information: author’s name, article title (enclosed by quotation marks), magazine title (italicized), and date. Page numbers are included in notes but are omitted in bibliographic entries. Regular departments (or regularly occurring subsections) in a magazine are capitalized, but not put in quotation marks. For example, National Geographic is the magazine that regularly includes a department called Foods of the Region.
1. Emily Macel, “Beijing’s Modern Movement,” Dance Magazine, February 2009, 35.
Macel, Emily. “Beijing’s Modern Movement.” Dance Magazine, February 2009.
Notes and bibliographic entries for online magazines should follow the relevant examples for printed magazines. Additionally, online magazine entries should contain the URL at the end of the citation. If no stable URL exists, the name of the database can be substituted.
Note: In the examples below, Green Room is not placed in quotation marks because it is the department title rather than the article title.
Access dates are not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. If an access date is required for other reasons (e.g. by discipline, publisher, or instructor), the access date should be included immediately prior to the URL. In notes, access dates are surrounded by commas and in bibliographic entries they are surrounded by periods.
1. Barron YoungSmith, "Date Local: The case against long-distance relationships." Green Room, Slate, February 4, 2009, http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.
YoungSmith, Barron. "Date Local: The case against long-distance relationships." Green Room. Slate, February 4, 2009. http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.
Notes and bibliographic entries for newspapers should include the following: name of the author (if listed), headline or column heading, newspaper name, month (often abbreviated), day, and year. Since issues may include several editions, page numbers are usually omitted. If an online edition of a newspaper is consulted, the URL should be added at the end of the citation. Time stamps may be appropriate to include when stories for unfolding events are modified.
Names of Newspapers:
If the name of a newspaper begins with “The,” this word is omitted. For American newspapers that are not well-known, a city name should be added along with the newspaper title (see below). Additionally, a state abbreviation may be added in parenthesis after the city name.
News services, such as the Associated Press or the United Press International, are capitalized but not italicized and often appear in the author position of the citation.
Headlines may be capitalized using “headline style,” in which all major words are capitalized. Although many major newspapers prefer sentence style, the CMOS recommends headline style for consistency among various types of cited sources. Headlines presented entirely in full capital letters in the original are usually converted to headline-style upper and lower case in the citation.
If a regular column is cited, the column name may be included with the article title.
Editorials, Letters to the Editor, and Readers’ Comments:
Published editorials and letters to the editor should be treated generically, usually without headlines. Instead of a title, use “letter to the editor” [14.196].
Citing in Text:
Newspapers are more often cited in notes or parenthetical references than in bibliographies. If newspaper sources are carefully documented in the text, they need not be cited in the bibliography.
1. Nisha Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer,” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.
Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.