on research into nuclear waste treatment through transmutation. The European Commission considers MYRRHA to be a “high priority international project with significant societal relevance.” The goal is for this reactor to be operational in 2025.
JHR will also add to European materials testing and irradiation capability but will not support extracted beam applications. Finally, the 45-MW High Flux Reactor at Petten, the Netherlands (previously converted to LEU fuel, and so it is not discussed above) is recognized to be reaching its end of life, and so a new reactor, PALLAS,10 is being planned for medical isotope production and nuclear technology research. A bidders’ conference was held in August 2015; design, construction, and commissioning are expected to take about 10 years. The continuing planning and construction of new HPRRs and other neutron sources in Europe positions it well to maintain its prominence in neutron science and materials testing for decades to come.
Russia, too, is planning new reactor construction, although its emphasis is on fast reactors. The multipurpose sodium-cooled fast neutron research reactor (MBIR) (which has begun construction at RIAR in Dimitrovgrad, but is not an HEU-fueled reactor) will be a 150-MW, sodium-cooled fast reactor and will have a design life of up to 50 years. It will be a multiloop research reactor capable of testing lead, lead-bismuth, and gas coolants, and running on mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. It is expected to begin operations in 2020.
South Korea is in the midst of construction of the Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR), which will be a 15-MW reactor designed for radioisotope production and semiconductor doping. Scheduled to begin operation in 2017, it will be the first reactor in the world to operate on UMo dispersion-type LEU fuel (see Chapter 4). The fuel is being developed in South Korea in parallel with reactor planning and construction.
Aging of the U.S. Fleet of High Performance Research Reactors
The average age of reactors within the U.S.-based HPRR (USHPRR) fleet is close to 50 years. Many of the USHPRRs have recently completed license renewals that last for 20 years, but they will be due for relicensing at about the same time as their conversions to LEU fuel are expected to occur. Physical limits for existing reactors include embrittlement of the containment vessel and cooling systems. A variety of refurbishment strategies and programs (DOE, 2013b) have ensured that these reactors can continue to operate safely and can meet the evolving needs of their users.
The committee gathered end-of-life analysis information from each USHPRR. The operators of these reactors are confident that they can con-
10 See http://www.pallasreactor.com/?lang=en.
1. Report on performance of the 1954 exchange clones with special emphasis on the Tjiomas trial. First Symposium on International Cooperation in Hevea Breeding. Kuala Lumpur, 17-21 April 1972.
2. (Planting material recommendation for rubber replanting in P.N. Perkebunan X) A Special Report for PNP X. Co-author : Purnomo. June, 1972.
3. (Mutation breeding in perennial plants). Proceeding of the Meeting on Mutation Breeding. National Atomic Energy Agency. Jakarta, 7-8 August, 1972.
4. Some notes on the PR 300 series clones available for exchange. Symposium of the International Rubber Research and Davelopment Board. Medan. 2-3 December, 1972.
5. (Rubber planting materials recommended by Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and its regional distribution). Bogor Rubber Scientific Meeting. 26-28 December 1972: Cinyiruan Tea and Cinchona Agricultural Articles; Papers for Technical Meeting of the Private Plantations in the Regions of Central Jaya and Yogyakarta. Semarang. 24-26 January, 1973.
6. Performance of some PR 200 series clones at the Ciomas and Kaliwining E.perimental Gardens. Rubber Scientific Meeting II, Symposium of the International Rubber Research and Development Board, Bogor. 2-4 July, 1973. Co-author; Moh. Saleh.
7. Master Plan of the Sembawa Experimental Garden, 1975-1994. A Special Report for the Director of the Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, the Chairman of the Central Cess Board, and the Chairman of the Board of Management of the Research Institutes of Estate Crops. Second, Third and Fourth authors are respectively Louis Suryatmadja, Achmad Sudarsan and Komar Slamet.
8. (Early estimates of yield potential in the Hevea rubber clones) Proceedings of Workshop on Mutation Breeding II. Yogyakarta, 28-30 October, 1974. National Atomic Energy Agency.
9. (Rubber planting materials recommended for replanting). Menara Perkebunan 42 (5): 267-269, 1974: Practical Guide, Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops.
10. Selection and conservation problems in Hevea with special reference to Indonesia. Proceeding of the symposium on South Easi Asian Plant Genetic Resources. FAO-SEAMEO/BIOTROP = National Biology Institute, LIPI. Bogor. 20-22 March, 1975. Co-author: Anggreani Hendranata.
11. (Evaluation of the results of clone trials). Rubber Meeting 1975; Menara Perkebunan 43 (5) : 235-242. 1975. Second, third and fourth authors respectively : Anggreani Hendranata. Moh. Saleh and Susilo Suwitoutomo.
12. (Rubber planting materials for the replanting of smallholders rubber). Handbook published by Directorate General for Estate Crops. A condensed article. under the same title, was presented at the 1975 Rubber Scientific Meeting. and published in Menara Perkebunan 42 (5) : 251-256, 1975.
13. (Evaluation of Northern Sumatra plantations as sources of good planting materials for replanting of smallholders rubber). Directorate General for Plantation Crops. 1975. Co-author : L.A. Napitupulu.
14. (Evaluation of plantations in Northern Sumatra, West Java, Central Java and Danau Salak (South Kalimantan) as sources of good planting materials for replanting of smallholders rubber). Directorate General for Plantation Crops 1975. Second-fourth authors respectively : Kustoro, Mulyadi, Purnomo and L.A. Napitupulu.
15. (Planting materials recommended for replanting in the Condong Estate. Condong Garut Plantation Ltd.). A special report for the Management of the Condong Garut Plantation Ltd.
>16. (Development of rubber breeding in Indonesia). A special report presented to the Director General of Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, 1976.
17. (Research program of rubber breeding in Indonesia). Presented at the Meeting to Formulise Rubber Research Program. Bogor, 8-9 September, 1976.
18. Brief notes on the Hevea breeding resistant to SALB. Document : 2nd SALB/6/WP/3 ANRPC Tech. Comm. SALB.
19. A brief report on the 1974 exchange clones. A Special report for the 1976 IRRDB meeting.
20. (Some botanical problems in Hevea rubber breeding). Discussion Forum, National Biology Institute, LIPI, 1976.
21. Experiments on flower induction in Hevea rubber. Symposium of the International Rubber Research and Development Board. Bogor 8-9 November. 1976. Second, third and fourth authors respectively: Maslichah, Dedi Saleh and Bunyamin : Menara Perkebunan 45 : 23-29, 1977.
22. (Problems on widening genetic base and conservation of germplasm in plantation crops). Symposium in Agricultural Plant Breeding Bandung, 14-17 December, 1976. Co-authori : Anggreani Hendranata.
23. Rubber breeding in Indonesia. Centennary International Rubber Conference. Colombo, Srilanka, 15-17 December, 1976: Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka 54 : 43-49, 1977.
24. Introduction and establishment of Hevea materials to Indonesia. Workshop on International Collaboration in Hevea breeding and the collection and establishment of materials from the Neo-tropics. Kuala Lumpur, 12-16 April, 1977.
25. Report on 1974 exchange clones. Ibid. Second and third authors respectively : Susilo Suwitoutomo and Moh. Saleh.
26. (Conservation on Hevea germplasm). A report for the Director of Bogor Research Institute of Estate Crops, 1977.
27. (List of parentage of clones : PR, LCB, PPN, BPM, RR ,RRIM AND PB). Note 1/12/1977. Bogor RIEC.
28. (Preliminary testing of clones, of the local selection and of the introduced ones, at the Cibodas Experimental Garden, Bogor) First report : Growth and description of young plant. Co-author : Suhartono. Note 2/12/1977 Bogor-RIEC.
29. (Parent trees for hand pollination at the Ciomas Expermental Garden). Note 3/12/1977. Bogor-RIEC.
30. (Preliminary testing of clones selected from the 1967 hand pollinated seedlings at the Cibodas Experimental Garden). Co-author : Suhartono. Note : 4/12/1977. Bogor-RIEC.
31. (Preliminary testing of clones resistant to South American Leaf Blight, Microcyclus ulei (P. Henn.) Stahel). Co-author : Suhartono. Note 5/12/1977. Bogor-RIEC.
32. (Growth of TMS clones the 1967 selection at the Sembawa Experimental Garden, South Sumatra). co-author : Suhartono. Note : 6/12/1977). Bogor-RIEC.
33. (Status of the 1972-1977 hand-pollinated materials). Second, third and fourth authors respectively : Moh. Saleh, Suhartono and Bunyamin. Note 7/12/1977. Bogor-RIEC.
34. (Development of rubber planting in Brazil). Workshop on Rubber, 1982, P4TM Medan.
35. (Rubber Research Program) book VI, Research on Plantation Crops Agricultural Research Program for the 1980's. Agency for Agricultural Research Development, 1982.
36. (Botanical characteristics and the exploitation of rubber trees). Training on Crumb Rubber Processing II. BPMB, Deparment of Trade, Medan, 6-16 April. 1983.
37. Brief notes on the International Cooperation in Hevea breeding and the conservation of the germplasm. Materials for discussion in the forum IRRDB-IBPGR, 22-23 September 1983, Tun Razak Laboratory, Brickendonbury.
38. (South American Leaf Blight (Microcyclus ulei) and its control measures in plant breeding). Plant Protection Committee meeting, Cisarua, Bogor, 9-11 August, 1983.
39. (Research program of the Sungei Putih Research Institute for Estate Crops for the years 1984-1989). SPRIEC 1984.
40. (Some research results and research problems encountered). A special lecture at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumatra, 15 March 1984.
41. (Technology transfer in the development of plantation in North Sumatra in the 4th 5 year Development Program) Presented at the official meeting of the Extention Services of Plantation Crops of North Sumatra Province, March 20, 1984.
42. (Rubber research program for breeding resistant to South American Leaf Blight (Microcyclus ulei) (P. Henn.) Stahel). Meeting of the Plant Protection Committee, April 13, 1984.
43. Sungei Putih Research Institute for Estate Crops The National Center for Rubber Research Information Booklet.
44. (Rubber culture research and the extention of the results Open House. Sungei Putih, July 30, 1984.
45. (Report of Indonesian Delegation attending International Rubber Study Group Meeting). London, June 18-22, 1984.
46. (Some notes on international cooperation on South American Leaf Blight Problem). Plant Protection Committee Meeting, Cisarua, Bogor, 15-17 October, 1984.
47. (The role of large plantations toward the formation of plantation society). Meeting of Private Plantation and Extension Services of Plantation Crops of North Sumatra Province, Brastagi. 1984.
48. (Collection and conservation of rubber germplasm). Workshop on Rubber Breeding, 1985. Sungei Putih, March, 26-28, 1985.
49. The prospect of Indonesian Rubber Until the year 2000. Proceeding Panel Discussion on the Prospect of Indonesian Horticulture, Fisheries and Estate Commodities and Capital Investment in their Productions and Industries Until the Year 2000. Pekan Produksi Indonesia. Jakarta, August 24, 1985.
50. (The achievement and the direction of rubber industry development in Indonesia and abroad). Medan Plantation Training Institute, November 19, 1987.
51 (Some matters should be considered in composing 1991-1993 Rubber Planting Material Recommendation, and in formulising the new rubber breeding program). Workshop on Rubber Breeding Pontianak, 14-17 July, 1990.
52. (ANRPC role in promoting development of rubber in member countries). National Rubber Conference II. Palembang, 18-20 September 1990.
53. (Further development in rubber breeding in Indonesia). Discussion Forum organised by Biotechnology Research Instutute for Estate Crops. Bogor, 27 November, 1993.
54. (Recent development of the ASEAN research centers for plantation crops). Training in Management of Research Institutes. Lembaga Pendidikan Perkebunan, Yogyakarta, May 15, 1993.
55. (Report of consultant on soil suitability for rubber forest industry the Forest Group of Air Alas and of Keduran and its surrounding areas in the Province of Bengkulu, and the Forest Groups of Muara Dua and of Rebang and its surrounding areas, in the Province of Lampung, PT. INHUTANI V). Enclosed 5 numbers of Practical Guide (PP 1.0 to 5.0) 1993. PP6.0 is a separate part : "Control of white root disease in rubber forest industry". 1994.
56. (Out of a rubber breeder's note book. In : Half a century Indonesian rubber has been contributing significantly in the nation independence. pp 109-134). Indonesian Rubber Association (Gapkindo), 1995.