Praxis Ii General Science Content Essays On Success

Praxis II Practice Test Review

Praxis II Test Study Guide with Practice Questions

There are a number of reasons for teachers to take the Praxis II: Subject Assessment tests. Many states require these exams as part of the licensing or certification process, and many professional organizations require them for entry. Many teachers take the Praxis II simply to improve their resume. The Praxis II has been developed by the Educational Testing Service to measure knowledge in specific subjects and general teaching practices. The questions are developed by groups of teachers in each content area, and are subjected to several phases of review. There are three main categories of Praxis II tests: Subject Assessments, Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests, and Teaching Foundation Tests. Subject Assessments address knowledge in a specific content area, and are composed of both multiple-choice and constructed response questions. Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests assess teaching knowledge for four distinct age groups: early childhood; K-6; 5-9; and 7-12.

PRAXIS II Certifications Available

These are just some of the various PRAXIS II Certifications available from ETS:


The questions in this exam are based on case studies, and may be either in multiple-choice or constructed-response format. Teaching Foundation Tests assess teaching knowledge in five subject areas: English, language arts, mathematics, social science, and science. The questions on these tests are a combination of multiple-choice and constructed-response formats. Exam scores are usually available by phone approximately four weeks after the exam, though they will also be mailed to the test-taker. The score report will indicate whether the candidate has passed the exam, his or her specific score, the range of possible scores, the raw points available in each content category of the test, and the range of the middle 50% of scores on the exam. On a multiple-choice test, the raw score is the number of questions answered correctly. On a constructed-response test, the raw score is the number of points awarded by the scorers. The score required to pass varies between jurisdictions. The Praxis II exams are administered in a paper-based format in locations around the United States. For more information on test dates and locations, prospective test-takers should visit the ETS website.

Praxis II Study Guide

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PRAXIS II Content Breakdowns

Praxis 2 Test Overview

Praxis 2 Test Study Guide with Practice Questions

Teacher Salary

The profession of elementary school teacher is one of the most noble and respectable jobs. Everyone knows that a teacher's salary is not what draws people to the profession, and there are other rewarding aspects of the job. Most people want to make a difference in a child's life; it's almost like a calling to the job. There is an internal passion that drives most professionals to the field, and they love the interaction with students. Most teachers report a love for meeting new students and working in an atmosphere of flexibility and change. Watching students discover new information and developing their skills and talents are what motivates teachers. The job is not easy, and working with children with varied temperaments, personalities, learning styles, and diverse backgrounds is a challenge each teacher faces. In the past 10 years, the focus of our education system has become more test driven and performance driven. Teacher workload and standardized testing has increased as well as mandated paperwork and forms. In addition to grading and correcting homework, teachers are asked to create education plans and write student assessments. Large class sizes and lack of job security are other challenges teachers face. But somehow, teachers find the rewards in teaching their students something new and helping them to prepare and succeed in the future.

So, what are some things that help teachers succeed in the profession? First of all, get familiar with the role and job responsibilities by shadowing a teacher, substituting, and student teaching, or try working as a teacher's aide for at least a year.

To begin, research different teaching careers, and know your personal strengths and weaknesses. Decide which subjects, age groups, and environments you prefer. Find out your state's teacher certification requirements and credentials because it varies, so check with your state's department of education. Variations are sometimes determined based on the age group and subject you plan to teach. The minimum requirement to teach in most states is a bachelor's degree from an accredited college or university, although some states require a master's. In some cases, a state may offer an emergency or provisional teaching license for teachers interested in serving an understaffed or high-need subject. Once you have the formalized education, each state requires the passing of teacher examinations. Student teachers have a chance to intern at a school during their education programs to learn about pedagogy and classroom management.

Teachers work a 40-hour week; however, increasing demands and pressures are changing the landscape. More class time, preparation time, and paperwork are requiring extra hours. Although there are occasional winter, spring, and summer breaks, most teachers go without pay during those times and may not be able to afford to live without taking on a second job. After a few years, many teachers choose to continue their educations to advance their careers in a number of different ways. Some go into school management or other leadership-type positions.

Once you have completed the formalized education, it will take some time to adjust to the profession. Try to stick it out for at least four years, which is the time it takes to get to know the system, lesson plans, and students. Develop a network of teaching friends who can provide suggestions and guidance. Experienced teachers are a great asset. Most children value a structured environment, so set up a routine so that they know what to expect. Supplies are scarce and valuable in our schools, so try to be creative in how the money is used. Use technology whenever possible and needed. Keep a sense of humor and laugh from time to time. Most classroom success can be traced back to children who enjoyed what they learned by teachers who loved their jobs. Effective teachers have a lot of love and compassion. They are patient and care about their students.

by Enoch Morrison

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Last Updated: 02/20/2018

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Praxis II Test

Over three dozen states and U.S. territories use the Praxis II test series as their official teacher certification exams. A teacher who passes one is officially recognized by the state as highly qualified to lead a classroom in that subject. (In some cases, a college student must pass a Praxis II exam in order to enter a student teaching program.) The exams are currently given in both paper and computer based form; however, at the end of 2015 the paper tests were discontinued. Paper tests are only given four days a year, if the test taker meets the ADA requirements associated with taking a paper test, while computer versions of most tests are available in certain time periods, called windows, which take place on a regular basis throughout the year. (Computer versions of some exams are at any time during the year.) Test dates and windows are determined by Educational Testing Service, which administers the PRAXIS exam.

Praxis II Test Review Sections

Free Praxis II Practice Test

Use the free Praxis II practice test questions below to get a better understanding of the Praxis II exam. Take advantage of this valuable resource to pinpoint your strengths and weaknesses.

Praxis II Tests

Praxis 2 tests were created as a response to landmark federal legislation. In 2002, President Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind act (NCLB), arguably one of the most important education reform laws in American history. NCLB was based on the premise that millions of schoolchildren in America are being shortchanged and are receiving an inferior education because of large numbers of under-qualified and poorly trained teachers in classrooms. NCLB states that all schoolchildren have a right to a highly qualified teacher, and mandated that higher standards for teachers be put in place by school districts across America.

To that end, Educational Testing Service (ETS) developed the Praxis series of exams. Praxis Core exam is used by colleges and universities as a pre-admission test for applicants who want to major in education. Praxis II exams, of which there are around 200, are tests of specific subject matter and pedagogical skills in that subject. They are designed to measure the knowledge and abilities a person must possess in order to be an effective teacher in the subject matter. Praxis II tests are challenging and thousands of people fail them every year, forcing many of them to defer or abandon their dreams of teaching children. Thorough preparation is critical, and you’ll find an abundance of free videos here at Mometrix Academy to help you prep for these important exams.

Praxis 2 Study Guide

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Praxis II Overview

The Educational Testing Service has taken the time to ensure the Praxis 2 test is crafted with care in order to be reasonable and applicable to become a successful teacher. Each Praxis 2 test goes through an extensive standardization process. The Educational Testing Service hires in educators that work the same content area that the test is patterned after. They do this to identify what content is appropriate for the average American classroom, and then they apply that content to the Praxis 2 exam. Once the educator is finished, the experts and content advisors at the Educational Testing Service make sure the Praxis 2 exam questions meet the pre-established standards and requirements. They are then placed in trial testing and removed of any cultural bias. Once all of the is done the questions are placed on the appropriate Praxis 2 exam.

Test Length and Format

Each Praxis II test will vary on the amount of questions and test length. In regards to test time, every Praxis II test will range from 1 to 5 hours. Praxis II exam questions will typically be either selected response questions or essay questions. Each question is designed to assess the test taker’s knowledge and abilities to perform adequately as a beginning teacher. Subject knowledge as well as general pedagogical knowledge will be extensively tested. There are three main types of tests the test taker will face when taking a Praxis II test: a Subject Assessment Praxis II test; a Principles of Learning and Teaching, or PLT, Praxis II test; as well as a Teaching Foundations Praxis II exam.

Subject Assessments

The Subject Assessment Praxis 2 exam category is the most varied category in regards to both subjects as well as question number, and test time. Each Subject Assessment Praxis 2 exam can contain both general questions and subject-specific questions. Every Subject Assessment Praxis 2 exam will contain selected response and/or constructed response questions. These tests are designed to measure the abilities of the test taker in the specific field the test taker wishes to teach. Though the Core Praxis 2 exam and the Pedagogical focused Praxis 2 exam are both important, this Praxis 2 exam will be the test that relates closest to the day to day activities of the future instructor.

Principles of Learning and Teaching

The Principles of Learning and Teaching, or PLT test is primarily used to assess the test taker’s abilities and pedagogical knowledge in regards to instructing a classroom. There are four different versions of this Praxis 2 test. Each Praxis 2 test in this category will consist of 70 selected response questions and 4 constructed response questions, in which the test taker will have two hours to complete. Each version of this Praxis 2 test category will cover topics such as: Students as Learners; Instructional Process; Assessment; Professional Development, Leadership, and Community; as well as an Analysis of Instructional Scenarios. The different versions of the Praxis PLT test are as follows: the Early Childhood Praxis 2 test; the K-6 Praxis 2 test; the 5-9 Praxis 2 test; as well as the 7-12 Praxis 2 test.

Teaching Foundations

Finally the Teaching Foundations Praxis II exam category is used to measure the test taker’s ability to adequately teach about the following four main areas: Multiple Subjects; Mathematics; English; and Science. Each Praxis II exam in this category will consist of selected response questions as well as constructed response questions. These tests are like a mixture of the two previous tests. Each Teaching Foundations Praxis II exam focuses on a specific subject; however, unlike the Subject Assessments, this Praxis II exam category also assesses the test taker’s ability to teach and control the classroom, much like tests in the PLT Praxis II exam category. Each Teaching Foundations Praxis II exam uses scenarios related to the subject matter to assess how the test taker would perform in each specific scenario.

Since the Praxis II test is being utilized by over three dozen different states and U.S. territories, test sites are located all across the country. These sites can be found in multiple cities and provinces in all 50 states, as well as in the District of Columbia, Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Upon registering for the Praxis II test, the test taker will be able to choose whichever testing center is closest to them. The state requirements for the Praxis II test vary by each state; however, almost every state requires that the test taker holds a baccalaureate degree, and that each test taker has completed an educator preparation program. Each state is different in their requirements, so it is important that the test taker knows their specific state’s requirements when applying to take the Praxis II test.

Whenever the test taker feels they are ready to take the Praxis 2 exam, they can register in three different ways: online; by mail; or by phone. If the test taker decides to register by mail then ETS will mail the admission ticket that the test taker needs to enter the testing facility. If the test taker registers using their Praxis account, they must print out the admission ticket themselves. The testing location may change so the test taker needs to make sure that they check around three days before the testing day to ensure they know where to take their Praxis 2 exam. If the test taker wants their scores reported to their respective colleges, they must include which school to send the school to when registering. Depending on which state the test taker registers to take the Praxis 2 exam in, they may have to submit their Social Security Number upon registration. In the event that the test taker is absent on the day of their Praxis 2 exam, all test fees will be forfeited; however, the test taker may change the date to another date that is in the future as long as it is in the same testing year. If it does not fall into the same testing year, a $40 fee will be applied. If the test taker wishes to cancel their testing appointment, they must do so three or more days before their scheduled test day; otherwise, their test fees will be forfeited. The test taker may take their respective Praxis 2 exam, regardless of whether or not they have paid the appropriate fees; however, scores will not be distributed until the account is fully paid off.

Upon the day of taking their Praxis 2 test, the test taker will be allowed only specific items while in the testing area. They will be allowed to bring and are required to bring their admission ticket as well as one of the following acceptable photo IDs: A Passport with the test taker’s name, photograph, and signature; A valid government-issued driver’s license with their name, photograph, and signature; any kind of national ID that has the test taker’s name, photograph, and signature; or a Military ID that has the test taker’s name, photograph, and signature. The test taker can also bring a calculator if it is appropriate for their respective Praxis 2 test.

When taking the Praxis II exam, there are certain items that the test taker should not bring. Personal items such as bags, backpacks, and purses will not be allowed in the testing room; likewise, cell phones are prohibited. In the event that the test taker brings in a cell phone, the phone will be confiscated and inspected for any test information. Watches are not allowed in the testing room while taking the Praxis II exam either. Food and drinks are also not allowed to be brought into the testing area. There will be a place to store personal items while the test taker is testing; however, they will not have access to such items during the breaks. The testing centers hold no responsibility if the items stored are damaged or stolen. If the test taker needs access to any personal items, equipment, or sustenance due to a medical need, they must follow the correct filing procedures notifying ETS of the medical condition requiring the specific accommodation.

Once the Praxis II test is over the test taker will be expecting to know their scores to determine if they passed, or if they need to take the test again. The ETS does not have a specific passing score for any Praxis II test. Each passing score is determined by each state and territory that accepts the Praxis II test. This deviation is a direct result of the diversity that America cherishes. Each state has its own culture and social and academic norms. Due to this, each state has different requirements teachers need in order to be successful in their careers. Because each Praxis II test is carefully crafted by teachers and teacher educators in the specific subject and state in which the test taker takes the Praxis II test, the content and difficulty will vary for each state offering the Praxis II test.

So how does the test taker know they passed? The ETS will inform the test taker of their results. The time in which the test taker receives their scored is dependent on how they elect to receive their Praxis 2 exam scores. If the test taker decides to have their scores mailed to them, it will take 10 to 16 business days for the ETS to send the Praxis 2 exam scores. Alternatively, if the test taker decides to have their scores posted online, they will receive their scores immediately after the 10 to 16 day period, instead of waiting for the scores to travel through the mail. If the test taker wishes to have additional Praxis 2 exam score reports sent to them, they will have to do so through their Praxis account, and will be charged an extra $50 to do so. Such Praxis 2 exam scores can be received online, or through other mediums such as, mail, phone, or by fax.

Once the test taker completes the Praxis 2 test, their test scores are sent to the test taker as well as any institutions or agencies that the test taker denotes in the Praxis 2 test registration form. Institutions will not be automatically sent score reports. They must be denoted in the test taker’s registration form. In addition to the selected recipients, the Praxis 2 test scores are also automatically sent to the departments of education in the following states: Alabama; Alaska; Arkansas; California; Colorado; Connecticut; Delaware; District of Columbia; Georgia; Hawaii; Idaho; Indiana; Iowa; Kansas; Kentucky; Louisiana; Maryland; Mississippi; Missouri; Montana; Nebraska; Nevada; New Hampshire; New Jersey; North Carolina; North Dakota; Ohio; Oklahoma; Oregon; Pennsylvania; Rhode Island; South Carolina; South Dakota; Tennessee; Utah; Vermont; Virginia; Washington; West Virginia; as well as Wyoming. If the state the test taker wishes to have Praxis 2 test scores is not in this list, the test taker must list the specific state they wish to send the scores to as a score recipient upon registering for the Praxis 2 test.

Due to the fact that each Praxis II exam is individually crafted, the questions on each test vary in difficulty. For this reason, the ETS decided not to base results on a raw score. A raw score is purely how many questions the test taker answered correctly. These scores have no regard to how difficult each question is. In contrast, the scaled scoring system for the Praxis II exam does take the difficulty of each question into consideration when scoring the test. The easier the question, the fewer points a correct answer is worth; alternatively, the harder a question is, the more points a correct answer is worth. The ETS has a scaling process known as equating that they use to ensure that each Praxis II exam score is fair and accurate.

The Praxis II test can be very arduous. If the test taker does not adequately study, they will fail. The reason the test is so difficult is to ensure that the test takers that pass the Praxis II test will be qualified to instruct a classroom. The education years are arguably the most vital point in a person’s life. The quality of a person’s education is in direct correlation to their success later on in life. Due to this importance, ETS rigorously prepared the test to weed out unqualified teachers, allowing only the best to help shape students’ future. Though the Praxis II test is difficult, it is not impossible. Through adequate preparation and diligent study, almost anyone can pass. We at Mometrix want to see you succeed. We want to see the world become a better place. This is why we have taken the time and effort to create appropriate study guides and practice tests for the Praxis II test. We want to help you become prepared for your test day, so that you can become a qualified teacher, and help lead our children’s future down the right path. With our study guides and practice tests, we believe we can give you the help that you need in order to be successful.


Provided by: Mometrix Test Preparation

Last updated: 01/24/2018
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