You should compile a bibliography when writing an essay, article, or research paper that relies heavily on source material. A bibliography is an alphabetized list of sources that have been used to compile data, typically in an article, essay, or research paper. This list is found at the end of the work and allows the person reviewing the data to verify the veracity of the statements and/or figures presented in the data itself. It also allows a writer to give proper credit for quotes or key phrases that have been written and presented in a source that they may have referenced in their paper so as to avoid plagiarism.
Bibliography for Books
The basic information you should cite when referencing a book includes; the author (surname first, followed by their given name or initials), the book title (in italics), the publisher, as well as the place and date of publication. Each section should be followed by a full stop. Your citation should look like this:
Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer. Wu Xia and the Art of Scooter
Maintenance. New York: Springer, 2003.
Note how the first line is not indented, but subsequent lines are. This is the format for all multiple line citations, regardless of the source of the information.
Should the source have more than one author, your citation should appear as follows:
Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer, and Cindy Lu. Wu Xia and the Art of
Scooter Maintenance. New York: Springer, 2003.
If there are more than two authors for your source, note your citation as follows:
Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer et. al. Wu Xia and the Art of
Scooter Maintenance. New York: Springer, 2003.
Occasionally, you will come across a source without a listed author; this is especially common when citing newspaper articles and articles from the internet. When this happens, you should simply move to the next step of your citation.
Bibliography for Newspaper & Magazine Articles
For newspapers and magazines you should include the author, the article title (in quotation marks), the title of the newspaper or publication (in italics), the year of publication and the page numbers from which the information was gathered.
Doe, John. “How Do You Measure a Year in the Life?” The Sun Times.
2 July 2010: 1-3.
Bibliography for Online Resources
When you are citing an online source, do your best to include the following: the author, the title of the article or page, the web address or URL (in italics), and the date of publication.
Johnson, Mary Anne. “How to Bake the Perfect Souffle.”
http://www.foodnetwork.com/article/perfect_souffle. 20 February 2013.
Types of Bibliographies
There are two main types of bibliography formats: MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association).
- MLA format is typically used by those writing in the liberal arts or humanities community. It focuses on the author of the cited source material, in order to help the reader place him or her in the appropriate historical and philosophical context.
- APA format, on the other hand, is used more often in the social sciences and is useful for citing from journals and other such publications. Its focus is more on the research presented in the source and when it was released, rather than the individuals who conducted it.
Regardless of the format used, every bibliography citation has to have a minimum amount of identifying information. The source matters when it comes to formatting the entry — book titles are underlined, article titles are in quotation marks — and determines what information is needed (for example: a book's publisher vs. a web page's URL).
Write down the citation information for each source as you review it, whether or not you think you will actually use it; it will keep your notes more organized and help you find information quickly when you're doing your actual writing. Plus, it is good practice! The more you practice citation, the less of a chore it will be at the end of a hard paper.
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By YourDictionaryYou should compile a bibliography when writing an essay, article, or research paper that relies heavily on source material. A bibliography is an alphabetized list of sources that have been used to compile data, typically in an article, essay, or research paper. This list is found at the end of the work and allows the person reviewing the data to verify the veracity of the statements and/or figures presented in the data itself. It also allows a writer to give proper credit for quotes or key phrases that have been written and presented in a source that they may have referenced in their paper so as to avoid plagiarism.
This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.
Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-01-31 01:23:00
General Model for Citing Books in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography System
Footnote or endnote (N):
1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.
Corresponding bibliographical entry (B):
Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
Book by one author
1. Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums (New York: Viking Press, 1958), 128.
Kerouac, Jack. The Dharma Bums. New York: Viking Press, 1958.
Book by multiple authors
Two or more authors should be listed in the order they appear as authors, and not necessarily alphabetically.
2. Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs & Space (London: Sage Publications, 1994), 241-51.
Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.
Translated work with one author
3. Julio Cortázar, Hopscotch, trans. Gregory Rabassa (New York: Pantheon Books, 1966), 165.
Cortázar, Julio. Hopscotch. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.
Book with author and editor
In notes, CMOS prefers the abbreviation of “editor(s)” as “ed.” or “eds.,” and translator(s) as “trans.” In bibliographic entries, these abbreviations are not used. Instead, titles are spelled out in full. This information appears in the MLA Handbook, section 14.103.
4. Edward B. Tylor, Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, ed. Paul Bohannan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 194.
Tylor, Edward B. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
Chapter from a single-authored book
CMOS supplies two correct forms for bibliographic entries. Both are noted here.
5. Gloria Anzaldua, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” in Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera, (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987): 53-64.
Anzaldua, Gloria. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” In Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987.
Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987. See esp. chap. 5, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.”
Contributions from an edited collection with various authored chapters
When citing work by a single author that appears in a book with multiple authors, the contributing author’s name is cited first, followed by the title of their contribution, the word 'in' and the title of the book, along with the name(s) of the editors, and other standard information.
5. Phillip Appleman, “O Karma, Dharma, Pudding and Pie,” in Good Poems, ed. Garrison Keillor (New York: Penguin, 2002), 12.
Appleman, Phillip. “O Karma, Dharma, Pudding and Pie.” In Good Poems, edited by Garrison Keillor, 12. New York: Penguin, 2002.
Introduction, Preface, or Afterwords in a Book
Unlike other citations for books, bibliographic entries of this kind include the page number range for the part cited.
6. Steven Pinker, introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, ed. John Brockman (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007), xxv.
Pinker, Steven. Introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, xxiii-xxxiii. Edited by John Brockman. New York: Harper Perennial, 2007.
Anonymous works--Unknown authorship
Sources that have no known author or editor should be cited by title. Follow the basic format for "Footnote or Endnote" and "Corresponding Bibliographical Entry" that are exemplified above omitting author and/or editor names and beginning respective entries with the title of the source.
Citing indirect sources
Because authors are generally expected to be intimately familiar with the sources they are citing, Chicago discourages the use of a source that was cited within another (secondary) source. In the case that an original source is utterly unavailable, however, Chicago requires the use of "quoted in" for the note:
7. Ian Hacking, The Social Construction of What? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 103, quoted in Manuel DeLanda, A New Philosophy of Society (New York: Continuum, 2006), 2.
Self-published or Privately Published Books
Books published by the author should be cited according to information available on the title page or copyright page. In place of publisher, include language such as “self-published” (abbreviated as “self-pub” in notes, but not a bibliography) or “printed by the author” is usually appropriate. For self-published e-books, add the name of the application or device required to read the book or the name of the file format, or both.
Kathleen Long, Chasing Rainbows: A Novel (self-pub., CreateSpace, 2011).